Posted in Health, news

Cervical Cancer Awareness: Why get a Pap Smear?

Let’s face it… Pap Smears aren’t fun.  The only test to sample tissue for cervical cancer just happens to be one of the most embarrassing and awkward.  But it can be one of the most life saving and simple.  So what is it and how does it work?  Here’s your questions answered.

 

What is the cervix and what is cervical cancer?

The uterus looks similar to a light bulb.  The larger top portion being where the fetus develops, and the bottom, narrower area, the cervix.  The cervix thins and dilates during childbirth, as you’ve heard in the movies “she’s only 7 cm!” and then after childbirth becomes narrow again.  It affects nearly 13,000 and kills 4,100 women each year, rising each year.  It can affect women of any age but is more common between 20 and 50.

 

375x321_cervix

http://www.webmd.com/women

 

What causes cervical cancer?

The most common cause is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.  This is acquired through unprotected sex, so condom use is encouraged. Thus its one of the most preventable causes of cancer.  Additionally, there are 3 vaccines for HPV currently approved by the FDA, Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix.

 

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Early cervical cancer may not be symptomatic but as it develops it may cause an odor, pain with urination, pelvic pain and bleeding. This bleeding may occur after sex, a pelvic exam, or intermittent bleeding not associated with a menstrual cycle.

 

Is cervical cancer treatable?

Yes.  Early detection is key and can be done by a Pap Smear, explained below.  Multiple treatments are available including surgery, chemotherapy,  radiation therapy, and targeted therapy such as Bevacizumab (Avastin®which prevents new blood vessel growth that can feed a tumor.

 

Who should get screened for Cervical Cancer?

The USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force) recommends the following:

Screening for cervical cancer in women age 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years or, for women age 30 to 65 years who want to lengthen the screening interval, screening with a combination of cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years.

 

What is a Pap Smear?

It is the cytology (cell analysis) of the cervix.  Years ago, a cytobrush would collect the cells and the medical provider would “smear” it onto a slide, place fixative, and then send it to the laboratory for the pathologist to analyze it.  Now ThinPrep® Pap tests are used more commonly as the cells from the brush are placed into a container with fixative, and this vial is sent to the pathologist to spin down and analyze.

 

cervical-smear-test-equipment-97358274-575db1493df78c98dc633c53

TEK IMAGE/SPL / Getty Images

 

In order to obtain the cells from the cervix, the medical provider needs to use a speculum to open the vaginal canal and allow access to the uterus.  A woman may be in the lithotomy position…lying on one’s back on the exam table with her feet in stirrups and knees bent. During the speculum exam, the medical provider may take cultures to test for common vaginal infections such as yeast, bacteria vaginosis, or sexually transmitted illnesses such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.  After the speculum exam, the provider may perform a pelvic exam with her gloved hand to examine the uterus and ovaries, evaluating for tenderness, shape, size and masses.

How is an HPV test done?

An HPV test can be done with the cells obtained during the Pap Smear.  The laboratory evaluates the cells to see if the HPV virus that causes cervical cancer is present.

In summary the thousands of deaths that occur each year to cervical cancer can be prevented with simple testing, such as the Pap Smear.  Discuss with your medical provider when cervical cancer screening is best for you.

Daliah Wachs, MD, FAAFP is a nationally syndicated radio personality on GCN Network, iHeart Radio and Board Certified Family Physician

 

 

Advertisements
Posted in Health, news

Are Pap Smears Going Away?

For some yes, as new cancer screening guidelines suggest swapping the embarrassing procedure with HPV only tests. These HPV only tests can even be done in the privacy of one’s home.

The US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) suggest women between the ages of 30-65 may be screened for cervical cancer by testing for the HPV virus, high risk strains, every 5 years without undergoing a concurrent Pap smear. This is opposed to the “co-testing” recommended up until now.    Women can, however, if desired, choose to have Pap smears every 3 years. These guidelines do not pertain to those who have cervical cancer or symptoms that could suggest a malignant process such as pain, bleeding and weight loss.

However one concern many physicians have is the lack of other testing being done during a “Pap Smear” visit.  Pelvic exams evaluating for gynecological pathology, breast exams, counseling and preventative health recommendations are often done during a woman’s physical and extending the testing intervals to twice a decade could put one at risk of another illness being missed.

Moreover, would an at home HPV test be sufficient enough to screen for cancer?  Smoking may also predispose one for cervical cancer so testing for the HPV virus alone may not be enough.

 

What is the cervix and what is cervical cancer?

The uterus looks similar to a light bulb.  The larger top portion being where the fetus develops, and the bottom, narrower area, the cervix.  The cervix thins and dilates during childbirth, as you’ve heard in the movies “she’s only 7 cm!” and then after childbirth becomes narrow again.  It affects nearly 12,000 and kills 4,000 women each year.  It can affect women of any age but is more common between 20 and 50.

 

375x321_cervix

HTTP://WWW.WEBMD.COM/WOMEN

 

What causes cervical cancer?

The most common cause is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.  This is acquired through unprotected sex, so condom use is encouraged. Thus its one of the most preventable causes of cancer.  Additionally, there are 3 vaccines for HPV currently approved by the FDA, GardasilGardasil 9, and Cervarix.

 

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Early cervical cancer may not be symptomatic but as it develops it may cause an odor, pain with urination, pelvic pain and bleeding. This bleeding may occur after sex, a pelvic exam, or intermittent bleeding not associated with a menstrual cycle.

 

Is cervical cancer treatable?

Yes.  Early detection is key and can be done by a Pap Smear, explained below.  Multiple treatments are available including surgery, chemotherapy,  radiation therapy, and targeted therapy such as Bevacizumab (Avastin®which prevents new blood vessel growth that can feed a tumor.

 

Who should get screened for Cervical Cancer?

The USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force) recommended the following:

 

Women aged 21 to 65 years Th USPSTF recommends for cervical cancer every 3 years with cervical cytology alone in women aged 21 to 29 years. For women aged 30 to 65 years, the USPSTF recommends screening every 3 years with cervical cytology alone, every 5 years with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing alone, or every 5 years with hrHPV testing in combination with cytology (cotesting).

 

See the Clinical Considerations section for the relative benefits and harms of alternative screening strategies for women 21 years or older.

A
Women older than 65 years The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women older than 65 years who have had adequate prior screening and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer.

 

See the Clinical Considerations section for discussion of adequate prior screening and risk factors that support screening after age 65 years.

D
Women younger than 21 years The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women younger than 21 years. D
Women who have had a hysterectomy The USPSTF recommends against screening for cervical cancer in women who have had a hysterectomy with removal of the cervix and do not have a history of a high-grade precancerous lesion (ie, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 or 3) or cervical cancer. The first 3 recommendations apply to individuals who have a cervix, regardless of their sexual history or HPV vaccination status. These recommendations do not apply to individuals who have been diagnosed with a high-grade precancerous cervical lesion or cervical cancer. These recommendations also do not apply to individuals with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol or those who have a compromised immune system (eg, women living with HIV).

 

What is a Pap Smear?

It is the cytology (cell analysis) of the cervix.  Years ago, a cytobrush would collect the cells and the medical provider would “smear” it onto a slide, place fixative, and then send it to the laboratory for the pathologist to analyze it.  Now ThinPrep® Pap tests are used more commonly as the cells from the brush are placed into a container with fixative, and this vial is sent to the pathologist to spin down and analyze.

cervical-smear-test-equipment-97358274-575db1493df78c98dc633c53

TEK IMAGE/SPL / GETTY IMAGES

 

In order to obtain the cells from the cervix, the medical provider needs to use a speculum to open the vaginal canal and allow access to the uterus.  A woman may be in the lithotomy position…lying on one’s back on the exam table with her feet in stirrups and knees bent. During the speculum exam, the medical provider may take cultures to test for common vaginal infections such as yeast, bacteria vaginosis, or sexually transmitted illnesses such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.  After the speculum exam, the provider may perform a pelvic exam with her gloved hand to examine the uterus and ovaries, evaluating for tenderness, shape, size and masses.

How is an HPV test done?

An HPV test can be done with the cells obtained during the Pap Smear.  At home tests require the patient to swab their vagina (female) or urethra (male) or rectum and then mail the swab to the lab.  The laboratory evaluates the cells to see if the HPV virus that causes cervical cancer is present.

In summary the thousands of deaths that occur each year to cervical cancer can be prevented with simple testing, such as the Pap Smear.  Discuss with your medical provider when cervical cancer screening is best for you.

 

pap-smear

 

Daliah Wachs, MD, FAAFP is a nationally syndicated radio personality on GCN Network, KDWN, and iHeart Radio.

She is also a Board Certified Family Physician and Assistant Professor at Touro University Nevada

Posted in Health, news

Sperm Could be Used to Help Treat Cervical Cancer

Scientists found a way to use sperm to deliver chemotherapy to cervical cancer cells.

Why not?  Sperm fight jungle-like conditions for days to crack an egg, thus proving to navigate a woman’s cervix and gynecological track pretty well.

Researchers from the Leibnitz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research in Germany used sperm armed with doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy drug, to attack cervical cancer tumors in a lab.  87% of the cancer cells were killed within three days.  Then the team used tiny four-armed magnetic harnesses to transport the sperm to a tumor growth.  Upon abutment, the four arms opened allowing the doxorubicin-infused sperm to swim to the cancer cells and successfully kill them.

Tumors are made up of both cancerous and healthy cells, hence cancer cell-specific treatments are ideal to reduce healthy cells damage.

Wise-Woman-Approaches-Of-Cervical-Cancer

Moreover, direct delivery of the chemotherapeutic agent prevents it from being metabolized or diluted on its way to the organ needing treatment.

Why sperm?  A Sperm may have sensors that guide it to a woman’s cervix. For it to navigate the path it does to impregnate a female it must find the os, opening, of the cervix once it enters the vagina.  Transitional cells separating the endocervical cells from the ectocervical cells are a common place for cervical cancer, hence sperm may instinctively know how to find the transitional zone.  This makes them the perfect messenger.

These “spermbots” could revolutionize cervical cancer therapy and possibly target other gynecological diseases such as endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometriosis.

 

 

 

Daliah Wachs, MD, FAAFP is a nationally syndicated radio personality on GCN Network, iHeart Radio and Board Certified Family Physician

 

Posted in Health, news

IUDs May Cut Cervical Cancer by 30%

A new study suggests intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) may fight off the virus that causes cervical cancer.

Researchers from the University of Southern California’s Keck School of Medicine found the small T-shaped device may stimulate an immune response against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) virus which causes cervical cancer.

 

iud.jpg

T-shaped IUD sitting within the uterus

 

IUDs are a favorite among women as they do not involve taking a daily hormone pill and can provide contraceptive protection for years.  There are two main types:

The ParaGard IUD is a non hormonal implant made of copper. The copper wards of sperm allowing contraception up to 12 years.

Hormonal IUDs, such as Mirena, release progestin, a hormone similar to progesterone, to the local environment, thickening the cervical mucous to prevent sperm from reaching the egg.  Hormonal IUDs may also prevent ovulation.  Additionally, IUDs can alter the lining of the uterus such that if a fertilized egg does occur, it may not be able to nest in the uterus without proper lining.

But both IUDs can stimulate an immune response that is both a deterrent to sperm and now suggested to viruses such as HPV.

Vaccines against the HPV virus exist and are given to 11-12 year old girls with the maximum age at which one could receive the vaccine, 26 years old.

If more research confirms this is the case, then those women who have not been vaccinated or are too old to receive the vaccine against cervical cancer may benefit from using an IUD.

What is the cervix and what is cervical cancer?

The uterus looks similar to a light bulb.  The larger top portion being where the fetus develops, and the bottom, narrower area, the cervix.  The cervix thins and dilates during childbirth, as you’ve heard in the movies “she’s only 7 cm!” and then after childbirth becomes narrow again.  It affects nearly 12,000 and kills 4,000 women each year.  It can affect women of any age but is more common between 20 and 50.

375x321_cervix

HTTP://WWW.WEBMD.COM/WOMEN

 

What causes cervical cancer?

The most common cause is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.  This is acquired through unprotected sex, so condom use is encouraged. Thus its one of the most preventable causes of cancer.  Additionally, there are 3 vaccines for HPV currently approved by the FDA, GardasilGardasil 9, and Cervarix.

 

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Early cervical cancer may not be symptomatic but as it develops it may cause an odor, pain with urination, pelvic pain and bleeding. This bleeding may occur after sex, a pelvic exam, or intermittent bleeding not associated with a menstrual cycle.

 

Is cervical cancer treatable?

Yes.  Early detection is key and can be done by a Pap Smear, explained below.  Multiple treatments are available including surgery, chemotherapy,  radiation therapy, and targeted therapy such as Bevacizumab (Avastin®which prevents new blood vessel growth that can feed a tumor.

 

Who should get screened for Cervical Cancer?

The USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force) recommends the following:

Screening for cervical cancer in women age 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years or, for women age 30 to 65 years who want to lengthen the screening interval, screening with a combination of cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years.

What is a Pap Smear?

It is the cytology (cell analysis) of the cervix.  Years ago, a cytobrush would collect the cells and the medical provider would “smear” it onto a slide, place fixative, and then send it to the laboratory for the pathologist to analyze it.  Now ThinPrep® Pap tests are used more commonly as the cells from the brush are placed into a container with fixative, and this vial is sent to the pathologist to spin down and analyze.

cervical-smear-test-equipment-97358274-575db1493df78c98dc633c53

TEK IMAGE/SPL / GETTY IMAGES

In order to obtain the cells from the cervix, the medical provider needs to use a speculum to open the vaginal canal and allow access to the uterus.  A woman may be in the lithotomy position…lying on one’s back on the exam table with her feet in stirrups and knees bent. During the speculum exam, the medical provider may take cultures to test for common vaginal infections such as yeast, bacteria vaginosis, or sexually transmitted illnesses such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.  After the speculum exam, the provider may perform a pelvic exam with her gloved hand to examine the uterus and ovaries, evaluating for tenderness, shape, size and masses.

How is an HPV test done?

An HPV test can be done with the cells obtained during the Pap Smear.  The laboratory evaluates the cells to see if the HPV virus that causes cervical cancer is present.

In summary the thousands of deaths that occur each year to cervical cancer can be prevented with simple testing, such as the Pap Smear.  Discuss with your medical provider when cervical cancer screening is best for you.

 

Daliah Wachs, MD, FAAFP is a nationally syndicated radio personality on GCN Network, iHeart Radio and Board Certified Family Physician

 

Posted in Health, news

Cervical Cancer Awareness: Why get a Pap Smear?

Let’s face it… Pap Smears aren’t fun.  The only test to sample tissue for cervical cancer just happens to be one of the most embarrassing and awkward.  But it can be one of the most life saving and simple.  So what is it and how does it work?  Here’s your questions answered.

What is the cervix and what is cervical cancer?

The uterus looks similar to a light bulb.  The larger top portion being where the fetus develops, and the bottom, narrower area, the cervix.  The cervix thins and dilates during childbirth, as you’ve heard in the movies “she’s only 7 cm!” and then after childbirth becomes narrow again.  It affects nearly 12,000 and kills 4,000 women each year.  It can affect women of any age but is more common between 20 and 50.

375x321_cervix

http://www.webmd.com/women

 

What causes cervical cancer?

The most common cause is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.  This is acquired through unprotected sex, so condom use is encouraged. Thus its one of the most preventable causes of cancer.  Additionally, there are 3 vaccines for HPV currently approved by the FDA, Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix.

 

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Early cervical cancer may not be symptomatic but as it develops it may cause an odor, pain with urination, pelvic pain and bleeding. This bleeding may occur after sex, a pelvic exam, or intermittent bleeding not associated with a menstrual cycle.

 

Is cervical cancer treatable?

Yes.  Early detection is key and can be done by a Pap Smear, explained below.  Multiple treatments are available including surgery, chemotherapy,  radiation therapy, and targeted therapy such as Bevacizumab (Avastin®which prevents new blood vessel growth that can feed a tumor.

 

Who should get screened for Cervical Cancer?

The USPSTF (United States Preventive Services Task Force) recommends the following:

Screening for cervical cancer in women age 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years or, for women age 30 to 65 years who want to lengthen the screening interval, screening with a combination of cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years.

What is a Pap Smear?

It is the cytology (cell analysis) of the cervix.  Years ago, a cytobrush would collect the cells and the medical provider would “smear” it onto a slide, place fixative, and then send it to the laboratory for the pathologist to analyze it.  Now ThinPrep® Pap tests are used more commonly as the cells from the brush are placed into a container with fixative, and this vial is sent to the pathologist to spin down and analyze.

cervical-smear-test-equipment-97358274-575db1493df78c98dc633c53

TEK IMAGE/SPL / Getty Images

In order to obtain the cells from the cervix, the medical provider needs to use a speculum to open the vaginal canal and allow access to the uterus.  A woman may be in the lithotomy position…lying on one’s back on the exam table with her feet in stirrups and knees bent. During the speculum exam, the medical provider may take cultures to test for common vaginal infections such as yeast, bacteria vaginosis, or sexually transmitted illnesses such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.  After the speculum exam, the provider may perform a pelvic exam with her gloved hand to examine the uterus and ovaries, evaluating for tenderness, shape, size and masses.

How is an HPV test done?

An HPV test can be done with the cells obtained during the Pap Smear.  The laboratory evaluates the cells to see if the HPV virus that causes cervical cancer is present.

In summary the thousands of deaths that occur each year to cervical cancer can be prevented with simple testing, such as the Pap Smear.  Discuss with your medical provider when cervical cancer screening is best for you.

 

                                                                                                         LearnHealthSpanish.com

                                                                                                         Medical Spanish made easy

Daliah Wachs, MD, FAAFP is a nationally syndicated radio personality on GCN Network, iHeart Radio and Board Certified Family Physician